Monday, April 30, 2007

Series III - India from 0 A.D.(Anna Domini) To 10th Century

The Pandyan kingdom (Tamil: பாண்டியர்) was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. Pandyas were one of the three ancient Tamil kingdoms (Chola and Chera being the other two) who ruled the Tamil country from 100 B.C.E. until end of the 15th century. They ruled initially from Korkai, a sea port on the southern most tip of the Indian peninsula, and in later times moved to Madurai.

and then Pallava DynastyThe Pallava kingdom (Telugu: పల్లవ; Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. The Pallavas, feudatories of Andhra Satavahanas became independent after their decline at Amaravati. They gradually moved southwards and established their capital at Kanchipuram in the 4th century CE. They grew wealthy and strong during the reign of Mahendravarman I (571630 CE) and Narasimhavarman I (630 – 668 CE). They dominated the Telugu and northern parts of Tamil region till the end of the 9th century, for about six hundred years.
An obscure dynasty, the Kalabhras, invaded the Tamil country, displaced the existing kingdoms and ruled for around three centuries.
They were displaced by the Pallavas and the Pandyas in the 6th century. Little is known of the fate of the Cholas during the succeeding three centuries until the accession of Vijayalaya in the second quarter of the ninth century.
The Sunga Empire (or Shunga Empire) is a Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. The capital of the Sungas was Pataliputra.
The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:శాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted about 450 years, until around 220 CE.
The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (35-405) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states).

The Chalukya dynasty (Kannada: ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು IPA: [ʧaːɭukjə]) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three closely related, but individual dynasties.
Chalukyas of Badami
Chalukyas of Kalyani
Eastern Chalukyas

The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. It was ruled by members of the Gupta dynasty from around 320 to 600 CE and covered most of Northern India, the region presently in the nation of Pakistan and what is now western India and Bangladesh. The time of the Gupta Empire is referred to as Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, religion and Indian philosophy. The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors. The decimal numeral system, including the concept of zero, was invented in India during the reign of the Guptas. The Chandragupta II is none other but the vikramaditya with the 9 sala-bhanjikas on his throne.

The Pala Empire was a dynasty in control of the northern and eastern Indian subcontinent, mainly the Bengal and Bihar regions, from the 8th to the 12th century. The name Pala (Modern Bengali পাল pal) means "protector" and was used as an ending to the names of all Pala monarchs.

The Rashtrakuta Dynasty (Sanskrit: राष्ट्रकूट rāṣṭrakūṭa, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) was a royal Indian dynasty ruling large parts of southern, central and northern India between the sixth and the thirteenth centuries. During this period they ruled as several closely related, but individual clans. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a seventh century copper plate grant that mentions their rule from Manpur in the Malwa region of modern Madhya Pradesh.

The Pratiharas (Hindi प्रतिहार pratihāra, also known as Parihars) ruled a large kingdom in northern India from the 6th to the 11th centuries. They are called Gurjara-Pratiharas in one late inscription that indicates their origin from western Rajasthan, which in those days was known as Gurjara.