Monday, April 30, 2007

Series VI - 1800 - 1947 (British Rule)

At the turn of the 19th century, Governor-General Lord Wellesley began expanding the Company's domain on a large scale, defeating Tippoo Sultan (also spelled Tipu Sultan), annexing Mysore in southern India, and removing all French influence from the subcontinent. In the mid-19th century, Governor-General Lord Dalhousie launched perhaps the Company's most ambitious expansion, defeating the Sikhs in the Anglo-Sikh Wars (and annexing Punjab with the exception of the Phulkian States) and subduing Burma in the Second Burmese War.

The annexation of Oudh in 1856 proved to be the Company's final territorial acquisition, as the following year saw the boiling over of Indian grievances toward the so-called "Company Raj".


Heroes like Mangal Pandey - It is not Mutiny, It is The First war of Independence which gave a sense of a sacrifice.
The rebellion was a major turning point in the history of modern India. Cultural and religious centers were closed down, properties and estates of those participating in the uprising were confiscated. At the same time, the British abolished the British East India Company and replaced it with direct rule under the British Crown. In proclaiming the new direct-rule policy to "the Princes, Chiefs, and Peoples of India", Queen Victoria (upon whom the British Parliament conferred the graciously accepted title "Empress of India" in 1877) promised equal treatment under British law, but Indian mistrust of British rule had become a legacy of the 1857 rebellion.

The Viceroy of India announced in 1858 that the government would honor former treaties with princely states and renounced the "Doctrine of Lapse", whereby the East India Company had annexed territories of rulers who died without male heirs. About 40 percent of Indian territory and 20–25 percent of the population remained under the control of 562 princes notable for their religious (Islamic, Hindu, Sikh and other) and ethnic diversity.
Period of draining of Indian riches.
During the three decades from 1870 to 1900 (with the notable exception of the jute industry, which benefited from the global industrial revolution), as the mercantilist policies of the Raj flooded India with imports while minimizing native production and exports. Economic historians estimate that India commanded roughly 25% of world GDP by 1800, but perhaps a tenth of that by the 20th century, due in large part to the severe and rapid decline in the Subcontinent's native industries (Maddison, Bairoch, Frank).1885 Indian National Congress is formed by Allen Octavian Hume
1921 Rise of Gandhi and his Civil Disobedience Movement
1928 Murder of Lala Lajpat Rai and subsequent revolutionary activities
1930 The Dandi Salt March, The Simon Commission, First Round Table Conference
1942 The Quit India Movement, Rise of Subhas Chandra Bose
1946 INA men tried. Muslim League Adamant about Pakistan
1947 India is Partitioned. British Leave India.

Freedom at Midnight.