Monday, April 30, 2007

Series I - India Before Common Era (Before 684 B.C. Magadha Formation)

Vedic Period
The Vedic period (or Vedic Age) is the period in the history of India when the sacred Vedic Sanskrit texts such as the Vedas were composed. The associated culture, sometimes referred to as Vedic civilization, was centered on the Indo-Gangetic Plain. This civilization is the foundation of Hinduism and the associated Indian culture that is known today.

Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BCE

5500-3300 Mehrgarh II-VI (Pottery Neolithic) Regionalisation Era
3300-2600 Early Harappan (Early Bronze Age)
3300-2800 Harappan 1 (Ravi Phase)
2800-2600 Harappan 2 (Kot Diji Phase, Nausharo I, Mehrgarh VII)
2600-1900 Mature Harappan (Middle Bronze Age) Integration Era
2600-2450 Harappan 3A (Nausharo II)
2450-2200 Harappan 3B
2200-1900 Harappan 3C
1900-1300 Late Harappan (Cemetery H, Late Bronze Age) Localisation Era
1900-1700 Harappan 4
1700-1300 Harappan 5

Late Harappan Culture 1700–1300 BCE

Iron Age Kingdoms · 1200–700 BCE
The classical "Golden Age" of ancient India spans the 1st millennia BCE and CE. Historical kingdoms arose from ca. 700 BCE with the Mahajanapadas. Glimpses of prehistoric political entities may be glimpsed from the early Vedic texts, in particular the Rigveda (dated to from around 1500 BC).
Maha Janapadas 700–300 BCE
The Buddhist and other texts only incidentally refer to sixteen great nations (Solasa Mahajanapadas) which were in existence before the time of Buddha. The Buddhist Anguttara Nikaya, at several places, gives a list of sixteen nations:

1. Kasi
2. Kosala
3. Anga
4. Magadha
5. Vajji (or Vriji)
6. Malla
7. Chedi
8. Vatsa (or Vamsa)
9. Kuru
10. Panchala
11. Machcha (or Matsya)
12. Surasena
13. Assaka
14. Avanti
15. Gandhara
16. Kamboja
Just Before the Mauryans (600-300 BC)

Series II - Magadha Empire - Pandya - Chera - Chola

The approximate extent of the Magadha state in the 5th century BC.
Magadha Empire 684 BC–AD 550.Magadha (मगध) formed one of the sixteen so-called Mahājanapadas (Sanskrit, 'great country') or regions in ancient India. The core of the kingdom was the portion of Bihar lying south of the Ganges, with its capital at Rajagriha (modern Rajgir). Magadha expanded to include most of Bihar and Bengal with the conquest of Licchavi and Anga respectively.[1] The ancient kingdom of Magadha is mentioned in Ramayana, Mahabharata, Puranas, and heavily mentioned in Buddhist and Jaina texts. The first reference to the Magadha occurs in the Atharva-Veda where they are found listed along with the Angas, Gandharis and the Mujavats as a despised people. Two of India's major religions started from Magadha; Gautama Buddha in the 6th or 5th century BCE was the founder of Buddhism, which later spread to East Asia and South-East Asia, while Mahavira founded Jainism. Two of India's greatest empires, the Maurya Empire and Gupta Empire, along with others, originated from Magadha.
The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC. The Nanda dynasty ruled Magadha during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. It is said to have been established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. Mahapadma Nanda died at the age of 88 and, therefore, he ruled the bulk of the period of this dynasty, which lasted 100 years. At its greatest extent, the Nanda Empire extended from Bihar and Bengal in the east to parts of Punjab in the west.[1] The Nanda Empire was later conquered by Chandragupta Maurya, who founded the Maurya Empire.
The Maurya Empire when it was first founded by Chandragupta Maurya circa 320 BC, after conquering the Nanda Empire when he was only about 20 years old.
Chandragupta extended the borders of the Maurya Empire towards Seleucid Persia after defeating Seleucus circa 305 BC. Chandragupta extended the borders of the empire southward into the Deccan Plateau circa 300 BC.[5]
Ashoka the Great
extended into Kalinga during the Kalinga War circa 265 BC, and established superiority over the southern kingdoms.
Mauryan Empire at its peakSouthern Kingdoms Before Common Era
Pandyas And Cholas had alternating holds.

The Pandyan kingdom (Tamil: பாண்டியர்) was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. Pandyas were one of the three ancient Tamil kingdoms (Chola and Chera being the other two) who ruled the Tamil country from pre-historic times until end of the 15th century. They ruled initially from Korkai, a sea port on the southern most tip of the Indian peninsula, and in later times moved to Madurai.

The Chera dynasty (Tamil: சேரர் Malayalam: േചര ) was one of the ancient Tamil dynasties who ruled the southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. The Early Cheras ruled over the Malabar Coast, Coimbatore, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day Kerala and Tamil Nadu states of India. The other two major Tamil dynasties were the Cholas in the eastern Coromandel Coast and Pandyas in the south central peninsula. These dynasties began ruling before the Sangam era (100BCE - 200CE) during which the Tamil language, arts and literature flourished.

Chola Dynasty Tamil: சோழர் குலம was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India. The dynasty originated in the fertile valley of the Kaveri River. Karikala Chola was the most famous among the early Chola kings, while Rajaraja Chola, Rajendra Chola and Kulothunga Chola I were famous emperors of the medieval Cholas., issued around 250 BCE by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka, mention the Cholas as recipients of his Buddhist prozelitism:

"The conquest by Dharma has been won here, on the borders, and even six hundred yojanas (5,400–9,600 km) away, where the Greek king Antiochos rules, beyond there where the four kings named Ptolemy, Antigonos, Magas and Alexander rule, likewise in the south among the Cholas, the Pandyas, and as far as Tamraparni (Sri Lanka)." (Edicts of Ashoka, 13th Rock Edict, S. Dhammika).

Series III - India from 0 A.D.(Anna Domini) To 10th Century

The Pandyan kingdom (Tamil: பாண்டியர்) was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. Pandyas were one of the three ancient Tamil kingdoms (Chola and Chera being the other two) who ruled the Tamil country from 100 B.C.E. until end of the 15th century. They ruled initially from Korkai, a sea port on the southern most tip of the Indian peninsula, and in later times moved to Madurai.

and then Pallava DynastyThe Pallava kingdom (Telugu: పల్లవ; Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. The Pallavas, feudatories of Andhra Satavahanas became independent after their decline at Amaravati. They gradually moved southwards and established their capital at Kanchipuram in the 4th century CE. They grew wealthy and strong during the reign of Mahendravarman I (571630 CE) and Narasimhavarman I (630 – 668 CE). They dominated the Telugu and northern parts of Tamil region till the end of the 9th century, for about six hundred years.
An obscure dynasty, the Kalabhras, invaded the Tamil country, displaced the existing kingdoms and ruled for around three centuries.
They were displaced by the Pallavas and the Pandyas in the 6th century. Little is known of the fate of the Cholas during the succeeding three centuries until the accession of Vijayalaya in the second quarter of the ninth century.
The Sunga Empire (or Shunga Empire) is a Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. The capital of the Sungas was Pataliputra.
The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:శాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted about 450 years, until around 220 CE.
The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (35-405) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states).

The Chalukya dynasty (Kannada: ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು IPA: [ʧaːɭukjə]) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. During this period, they ruled as three closely related, but individual dynasties.
Chalukyas of Badami
Chalukyas of Kalyani
Eastern Chalukyas

The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. It was ruled by members of the Gupta dynasty from around 320 to 600 CE and covered most of Northern India, the region presently in the nation of Pakistan and what is now western India and Bangladesh. The time of the Gupta Empire is referred to as Golden Age of India in science, mathematics, astronomy, religion and Indian philosophy. The peace and prosperity created under leadership of Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors. The decimal numeral system, including the concept of zero, was invented in India during the reign of the Guptas. The Chandragupta II is none other but the vikramaditya with the 9 sala-bhanjikas on his throne.

The Pala Empire was a dynasty in control of the northern and eastern Indian subcontinent, mainly the Bengal and Bihar regions, from the 8th to the 12th century. The name Pala (Modern Bengali পাল pal) means "protector" and was used as an ending to the names of all Pala monarchs.

The Rashtrakuta Dynasty (Sanskrit: राष्ट्रकूट rāṣṭrakūṭa, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) was a royal Indian dynasty ruling large parts of southern, central and northern India between the sixth and the thirteenth centuries. During this period they ruled as several closely related, but individual clans. The earliest known Rashtrakuta inscription is a seventh century copper plate grant that mentions their rule from Manpur in the Malwa region of modern Madhya Pradesh.

The Pratiharas (Hindi प्रतिहार pratihāra, also known as Parihars) ruled a large kingdom in northern India from the 6th to the 11th centuries. They are called Gurjara-Pratiharas in one late inscription that indicates their origin from western Rajasthan, which in those days was known as Gurjara.

Series IV - India from 10th Century to 16th Century A.D.

Mahmud of Ghazni (979-1030) led a series of raids against Rajput kingdoms and rich Hindu temples and established a base in Punjab for future incursions.
The Hoysala Empire (Kannada: ಹೊಯ್ಸಳ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) was a prominent South Indian empire that ruled most of the modern day state of Karnataka between the 10th and the 14th centuries. The capital of the empire was initially based at Belur but was later moved to Halebidu.

The Hoysala rulers were originally hill peoples of Malnad Karnataka, an elevated region in the Western Ghats range. In the 12th century, taking advantage of the internecine warfare between the then ruling Western Chalukyas and Kalachuri kingdoms, they annexed areas of present day Karnataka and the fertile areas north of the Kaveri River delta in present day Tamil Nadu. By the 13th century, they governed most of present-day Karnataka, parts of Tamil Nadu and parts of western Andhra Pradesh in Deccan India.
The Deli Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sultanat-e-Hind (سلطنتِ هند) / Sultanat-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the many Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1206 to 1526. Several Turkic and Afghan dynasties ruled from Delhi: the Slave dynasty (1206-90), the Khilji dynasty (1290-1320), the Tughlaq dynasty (1320-1413), the Sayyid dynasty (1414-51), and the Lodi dynasty (1451-1526). In 1526 the Delhi Sultanate was absorbed by the emerging Mughal Empire.

The Khilji or Khalji dynasty, who had established themselves as rulers of Bengal in the time of Muhammad Ghori, took control of the empire in a coup which eliminated the last of the Mamluks. The Khiljis conquered Gujarat and Malwa, and sent the first expeditions south of the Narmada River, as far south as Tamil Nadu. The Delhi Sultanate rule continued to extend into southern India, first by the Delhi Sultans, then by the breakaway Bahmani Sultanate of Gulbarga, and, after the breakup of the Bahmani state in 1518, by the five independent Deccan Sultanates. The kingdom of Vijayanagar united southern India and arrested the Delhi Sultanate's expansion.
The Vijayanagara Empire (Kannada: ವಿಜಯನಗರ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ, Telugu: విజయనగర సామ్రాజ్యము, translation: Victory City) was a South Indian empire based in the Deccan. Established in 1336 by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I, it lasted until 1646 although its power declined after a major military defeat in 1565 by the Deccan sultanates.
Some claim that Harihara I and Bukka Raya I, the founders of the empire, were Telugu people first associated with the Kakatiya kingdom who took control of the northern parts of the Hoysala Empire during its decline.Other historians propose they were Kannadigas and commanders in the army of the Hoysala Empire stationed in the Tungabhadra region to ward off Muslim invasions from the Northern India.
Irrespective of their origin, historians agree the founders were supported and inspired by Vidyaranya, a saint at the Sringeri monastery to fight the Muslim invasion of South India.
Babur defeated the Lodhi sultan decisively at the First Battle of Panipat. Employing firearms, gun carts, movable artillery, superior cavalry tactics, and the highly regarded Mughal composite bow, a weapon even more powerful than the English longbow of the same period, Babur achieved a resounding victory and the Sultan was killed. A year later (1527) he decisively defeated, at the Battle of Khanwa, a Rajput confederacy led by Rana Sanga of Chittor. A third major battle was fought in 1529 when, at the battle of Gogra, Babur routed the joint forces of Afghans and the sultan of Bengal.
The Bahmani Sultanate (Also called the Bahmanid Empire)was a Muslim state of the Deccan in southern India and one of the great medieval Indian kingdoms.[1] The sultanate was founded on 3rd of August 1347 by the Turkish governor Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah, who revolted against the Sultan of Delhi, Muhammad bin Tughluq. After 1518 the sultanate broke up into five states, Ahmednagar, Berar, Bidar, Bijapur, and Golconda, known collectively as the Deccan sultanates.

The Madurai Nayaks or Nayak Dynasty of Madurai were rulers of Tamil Nadu with Madurai as their capital, in India, from 1559 until 1736. They were originally governors from the Vijayanagara Empire.Telugu was their native language. Vishwanatha Nayaka was the founder of the Madurai Nayak dynasty.

Achyuta Deva Raya of Vijayanagar dynasty crowned Garikepati Viswanatha Nayaka of Balija caste as the king and thus Viswanatha Naidu became the founder of Madurai dynasty.Kandy Nayaks of Ceylon with family name "Chinthalapuri" were the descendents of Madurai Nayaks. The Nayak dynasty at Madurai established a strong bond between the people and the rulers through local government innovations, such as the formation of 72 divisions or paalayams. The Nayak reign marked a new era in Tamil Nadu, one noted for its vast administrative reforms, the revitalization of Temples previously ransacked by the Delhi Sultans, and the inauguration of a unique architectural style.

European colonies in India were set up by several European nations beginning at the end of the 15th century. In 1498, the Portuguese set foot in Goa. Rivalry between reigning European powers saw the entry of the Dutch, British and French among others.

Series V- India from 1600 till 1800(End of Mughals)

On 31 December 1600 Queen Elizabeth I of England granted a royal charter to the British East India Company to carry out trade with the East. Ships first arrived in India in 1608, docking at Surat in modern-day Gujarat. Four years later, British traders defeated the Portuguese at the Battle of Swally, gaining the favour of the Mughal emperor Jahangir in the process. In 1615, King James I sent Sir Thomas Roe as his ambassador to Jahangir's court, and a commercial treaty was concluded in which the Mughals allowed the Company to build trading posts in India in return for goods from Europe. The Company traded in such commodities as cotton, silk, saltpetre, indigo, and tea.

The Maratha Empire (Marathi: मराठा साम्राज्य Marāṭhā Sāmrājya; also transliterated Mahratta) and in its later years also known as the Maratha Confederacy, was a Hindu state of India, founded by Chhatrapati Shivaji, which existed from 1674 to 1818. At its peak, the Maratha Empire ruled a territory of 250 million acres, or one-third of South Asia.

After a lifetime of exploits and guerrilla warfare with the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, in 1674 Shivaji carved out an independent Maratha zone around Pune from the Bijapur Sultanate. Shivaji died in 1680, leaving a Maratha kingdom of great extent but strategically and vulnerably located. The Mughal invasion started around 1682 and lasted till 1707. Shahu, a grandson of Shivaji ruled the kingdom until 1749.
The Maratha losses at the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 halted the expansion of the empire and reduced the power of Peshwa.
The British first established a territorial foothold in the Indian subcontinent when Company-funded soldiers commanded by Robert Clive defeated the Bengali Nawab Siraj Ud Daulah at the Battle of Plassey in 1757. Bengal became a British protectorate directly under the rule of the East India Company.

The empire then became a loose confederacy, with political power resting in a 'pentarchy' of five Maratha dynasties: the Peshwas of Pune, the Sindhias (originally "Shinde"s of Malwa and Gwalior), the Holkars of Indore, the Bhonsles of Nagpur, and the Gaekwads of Baroda. Maratha affairs of the late 18th and early 19th centuries were dominated by internal rivalry between the Sindhia and Holkar, and by the three Anglo-Maratha wars with the British East India Company.

Series VI - 1800 - 1947 (British Rule)

At the turn of the 19th century, Governor-General Lord Wellesley began expanding the Company's domain on a large scale, defeating Tippoo Sultan (also spelled Tipu Sultan), annexing Mysore in southern India, and removing all French influence from the subcontinent. In the mid-19th century, Governor-General Lord Dalhousie launched perhaps the Company's most ambitious expansion, defeating the Sikhs in the Anglo-Sikh Wars (and annexing Punjab with the exception of the Phulkian States) and subduing Burma in the Second Burmese War.

The annexation of Oudh in 1856 proved to be the Company's final territorial acquisition, as the following year saw the boiling over of Indian grievances toward the so-called "Company Raj".


Heroes like Mangal Pandey - It is not Mutiny, It is The First war of Independence which gave a sense of a sacrifice.
The rebellion was a major turning point in the history of modern India. Cultural and religious centers were closed down, properties and estates of those participating in the uprising were confiscated. At the same time, the British abolished the British East India Company and replaced it with direct rule under the British Crown. In proclaiming the new direct-rule policy to "the Princes, Chiefs, and Peoples of India", Queen Victoria (upon whom the British Parliament conferred the graciously accepted title "Empress of India" in 1877) promised equal treatment under British law, but Indian mistrust of British rule had become a legacy of the 1857 rebellion.

The Viceroy of India announced in 1858 that the government would honor former treaties with princely states and renounced the "Doctrine of Lapse", whereby the East India Company had annexed territories of rulers who died without male heirs. About 40 percent of Indian territory and 20–25 percent of the population remained under the control of 562 princes notable for their religious (Islamic, Hindu, Sikh and other) and ethnic diversity.
Period of draining of Indian riches.
During the three decades from 1870 to 1900 (with the notable exception of the jute industry, which benefited from the global industrial revolution), as the mercantilist policies of the Raj flooded India with imports while minimizing native production and exports. Economic historians estimate that India commanded roughly 25% of world GDP by 1800, but perhaps a tenth of that by the 20th century, due in large part to the severe and rapid decline in the Subcontinent's native industries (Maddison, Bairoch, Frank).1885 Indian National Congress is formed by Allen Octavian Hume
1921 Rise of Gandhi and his Civil Disobedience Movement
1928 Murder of Lala Lajpat Rai and subsequent revolutionary activities
1930 The Dandi Salt March, The Simon Commission, First Round Table Conference
1942 The Quit India Movement, Rise of Subhas Chandra Bose
1946 INA men tried. Muslim League Adamant about Pakistan
1947 India is Partitioned. British Leave India.

Freedom at Midnight.